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Another seven counts of a similar nature were taken into consideration for his sentencing. In mitigation, the man told the court that he was remorseful over his actions and that he had gotten married last year. He pleaded for a lighter sentence due to financial issues, adding that he would be collecting the keys to his flat in a year. Met year-old through online game He first met the older girl through an online game in late They began chatting outside of the game, during which time the learnt each others ages.
She eventually relented and later sent him nude videos of herself at his request. In Julythe man brought the girl to a handicapped toilet on the sixth floor the Jurong West Sports and Recreation Centre to have sex with her. At first, the girl did not want to enter the toilet and playfully tried to evade the man.
However, she did so after he became angry as she did not want to disappoint him, said Deputy Public Prosecutor Nicholas Lim. The pair then had protected sex of the hsz floor. They returned to the same spot on 20 September that year to have sex for the second time.
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After some 10 minutes, the younger hcat began feeling scared and lonely. He then brought her to another room, where he forced a kiss on the year-old.
The elder girl called off the relationship in late as she felt that the man was using her for sex. Her mother later discovered their chats and nude videos. She then confronted her daughter, who admitted sex text chat in wan hsa long having had sex with the man. Often waste rock and low-grade ores of copper, gold and other metals were stacked and leached or leached in place with weak acid solution-or cyanide solution.
The metal-bearing solution was collected in a pond and values recovered by electrowinning or chemical precipitation. Final treatment of metallic ore concentrates was by smelting or electrowinning followed by refining. Smelter waste, called slag, was dumped in any convenient location close by. Smelters of all sizes have operated in Arizona. Today, three very large copper smelters operate continuously.
Bureau of Mines has documents proving that around mines produced a product in Arizona. The State Mine Inspector estimates that between 60, andmine workings and related structures exist. The discrepancy is ed for by the following example: The Amole Mining District occupies less than a square mile in southwest Tucson.
Bureau of Mines list one past producer in the district. The Arizona State Mine Inspector physically inventoried the district and found sixty five open holes as well as a large mine dump, a tailings pile and smelter slag. The State Mine Inspector finds sixty eight old mine workings and related structures where the U. Bureau of Mines lists one. The State Mine Inspector's estimate is derived from a pilot program conducted in and During this period two of Arizona's mining districts sex text chat in wan hsa long inventoried for potential hazards to public safety and health.
The Arizona State Legislature wisely established a law to address the safety and health hazards associated with abandoned and inactive mine workings by enacting Arizona Revised Statute The law directs the State Mine Inspector to locate all the old mine workings in Arizona which constitute a danger and to notify the owner of the violation. It requires the owner to secure the hazard in a timely fashion. The law also enables the State Mine Inspector to eliminate the hazard, if funds are available.
The Legislature funded the program for two years, and The Arizona State Mine Inspector selected a representative area and inventoried mine sites. Three hundred were found to have hazards. Thirty-one of those exhibited potential threats to the environment and they were appropriately forwarded to the Arizona Department of Environmental Quality for restoration. The remaining two hundred seventy were processed through title and the claim holders notified.
Based on the pilot program inventory, the Arizona State Mine Inspector estimates between 60, andold mine workings exist in the State. Public safety hazards include unprotected mine openings, unstable ground, unsafe timber, bad air, hidden pools of water, attack from wild animals and reptiles, hazardous mine buildings and structures, abandoned explosives and chemicals.
Accidents and deaths continue to accrue in Arizona, especially where urban sprawl and recreational activities encroach on old mining districts. Abandoned 4 mine incidents are reported to the State Mine Inspector nearly every week. Injuries occur monthly and deaths occur cbat. The Central Arizona Mountain Rescue Association reports mine related rescues and recoveries have nearly doubled since sex text chat in wan hsa long Adverse environmental impacts associated llong old mines are largely unknown.
Certain mines clearly constitute a threat to surface and ground water quality and possibly air quality. Flora and fauna have been impacted by acid mine drainage, elevated metals in streams and increased sedimentation.
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Fugitive dust from blowing mine tailings is certainly a nuisance in a few places, but no known health hazards have, thus far, been documented. Arizona's four inactive, large scale sex text chat in wan hsa long are not known to have caused irreversible, deleterious environmental effects over widespread areas. MINING means those activities- conducted to develop or extract minerals from a mine including on site transportation, concentrating, milling, leaching, smelting or other processing of ores or other minerals.
See Arizona Revised Statutes and Arizona Revised Statute re as follows: Abandoned and inactive mines to be secured; inspector authority; violation; classification A. Every mine operator or former mine operator or claimant who ssx a mine or mining claim or possesses a mine or mining claim under lease, tedt, permit or otherwise, who knowingly permits the existence on the premises of an abandoned or inactive mining shaft, portal, pit or other excavation which is dangerous to persons legally on the premises, who fails to cover, fence, fill or otherwise secure it and post warning s, within sixty days of notification by the inspector and ni fails to keep it so protected is guilty of a class 2 misdemeanor.
If it is impossible or impracticable to comply with this subsection within the required sixty days, the operator may submit a written plan of action to the inspector which specifically outlines the measures that will be taken and the of additional days necessary to comply with this section. In no case may the time extension granted by the inspector exceed an additional one hundred eighty days.
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The inspector may enter on such land to inspect for dangerous conditions which may present a health and safety hazard to the public. If hazards exist, the inspector may erect warning s across or near the entrance sex text chat in wan hsa long any mine shaft, portal, pit or other mine opening prohibiting the entry of unauthorized persons or erect other protective devices as necessary. If the mine operator cannot be located through reasonable efforts, the owner of record is the responsible party for the purposes of this section.
If neither the mine operator or owner of record can be located through reasonable efforts,the inspector shall erect warning s across or near the entrance of any mine shaft, portal, pit or other mine opening prohibiting entry of unauthorized persons or erect other protective devices as necessary. A person who knowingly and without authority removes, destroys or tampers with any warningcovering, fencing or other protection placed on, around or over any shaft, portal or other excavation is guilty of a class 6 felony.
Additionally, rules have been promulgated by the Arizoan State Mine Inspector which establish minimum closure requirements. Inter-related laws, rules and definitions contained in the Mining Code A. The Mining Code has evolved over 79 years into a document acceptable to industry and government. Arizona laws relating to environmental quality are administered by the Department of Environmental Quality.
Those presently affecting mining are water quality and air quality. Water quality laws and rules require that water introduced into surface or groundwater be of the same quality as water that is already there, within certain limitations. Operating mines acquire an Aquifer Protection Permit which ensures a negligible discharge of poor quality water. Old mining operations, obviously, cannot comply without remedial action. Air quality laws and rules define contaminants and air pollution.
They require an operating permit for anything that could impair ambient air quality, with certain exceptions. Abandoned and inactive mines are not exempt from these laws. Old mining operations, especially tailings impoundments, locally pollute the air continually with dust during windy conditions. Solid waste management could become an expensive consideration in mine site reclamation and hazard elimination. New and operating mines are strictly regulated to minimize safety, health and environmental hazards.
Old abandoned mines can be brought into compliance with adequate funding. Major mining companies spend millions annually on securing hazardous openings, stabilizing and revegetating tailings, controlling drainage, treating acid mine water, erosion control, dust control and remediating other environmental problems. Small mining companies, individual prospectors and land owners are voluntarily eliminating hundreds of hazardous mine openings annually.
Bureau of Land Management, the U. Forest Service, the U. Arizona's Department of Environmental Sex text chat in wan hsa long, similar to the State Mine Inspector, investigates environmental complaints and requires remedial action, where necessary. Adequate financing for a systematic inventory has been a major obstacle. Several funding mechanisms have been put into motion through our combined efforts.
The State Mine Inspector has applied for Water Quality Assurance Revolving Fund money to determine the nature and extent of water pollution directly attributable to two old mines. The Department of Environmental Quality administers the special mini-superfund for pollution clean-up. The award is for "Innovations in State and Local Government".
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Our program utilizes volunteer groups to continue the inventory of old mine hazards. Forest Service, has applied to the U. This allocation will establish adverse water quality impacts associated with past mining activities encompassing two central Arizona watersheds. This year the State Mine Inspector introduced legislation deed to fund the program through a modest user nsa attached to mining claim transactions.
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The Bill failed under the guise of no new taxes. Briefly, they include mines and mining related activities which have been terminated or suspended for a period exceeding six months. Sites reported in this summary are chhat covered by any mining permits, reclamation bonds, reclamation agreements or hazard elimination activities. Sites reported in this summary do not include those which occur on Indian lands.
Operators and owners of construction aggregate deposits list their products with ADOT, hoping to sell them. Tetx contractors have ready access to this information. The Arizona Department of Transportation lists sites and these include clay pits, borrow pits, cinder pits, gypsum pits, diatomote and bentonite pits, rip-rap quarries, decorative stone quarries and the "run of the mill" sand and gravel mines.
Hza Arizona State Mine Inspector's records show an average of of these sites having operated in any of the past five years. Thus, it is concluded, IAMs in the category of construction ores exist in Arizona. By strict interpretation of the law, mine sites are exempted from county planning and zoning requirements if they occupy five acres or more. Therefore, this figure of five acres was used to calculate the acres of disturbed land.
Reclamation efforts are tenuous at best, considering these are inactive mines and even the most test would start right up if a highway or canal project suddenly surfaced. Also, the Arizona State Mine Inspector requires certain closure practices be observed when an operation shuts down. Accordingly, no ysa costs are associated with construction ores in the data summary.
The traditional sources of information concerning other mines were explored, for example, the U. In all cases, information regarding IAMs was found to be very sketchy and of little help in addressing the IAM data summary report. The Arizona State Mine Inspector's pilot inventory program has evaluated over mine sites for potential hazards to public safety and health. Information from that data base regarding and character of IAMs is used exclusively throughout the data summary sheet.
These states have well documented Abandoned Mines Reclamation Programs. Sex text chat in wan hsa long dump and disturbed land acreages were estimated using mathematical factors which relate the total of Lont with the of disturbed acres, the size of mine dumps and the of related structural hazards. These factors were provided by the states of Montana and Colorado. Disturbed lands include exploration drilling sites, living facility remnants, junk yards, poorly constructed access ro and other land not in conformity with surrounding land.
Mine dumps include waste rock dumps, smelter slag piles and mill tailing. Abandoned structures include all fabricated structures, mostly headframes and unsound old buildings not protected as historic sites. Hazardous mine openings are adequately described in the narrative summary. Highwalls and subsidence prone areas were considered negligible and not included in the data summary.
Polluted waters were determined by examining the latest Section 30S report from the Arizona Department of Environmental Quality to the U. Environmental Protection Agency. The report states It further states No additional cost was attributed to the remaining miles of low or moderately impacted streams since elimination of the source of pollutants, i. Ownership was categorized by records generated by the Arizona State Mine Inspector's pilot inventory program.
These percentages are used for calculating ownership for the data summary. Factors which relate of mine openings to millsites, disturbed lands and mine dumps were supplied by the states of Colorado and Montana. These factors are as follows: 1 millsite per Smelters, only the four large inactive smelters in Arizona are listed. Many smaller smelters have existed but are included under mine dumps. Hazardous structures are included under mine openings.
The Code is particularly effective in eliminating dangers to public safety and health involving mine openings, highways, unsafe structures, ponds and unsecured sex text chat in wan hsa long chemicals. Arizona State Water Quality and Air Quality laws ensure environmental protection at operating and recently closed mines and related facilities.
Competition for Federal and State pollution clean up funds is stiff with nearly all going into urban industrial projects. The Arizona State Mine Inspector is in strong agreement with the spirit and intent of the Surface Mining Control Act, in as much as it puts the onus wzn hazard elimination on those currently benefiting from the activity. In this case, coal consumers.
Extending the authority of the Act to include non-coal mining seems to be a logical eventuality. The bills presently introduced in Congress Rahall H. Obviously, eliminating or minimizing the incentive to explore and develop Federal lands for any use as the Bumpers and Rahall bills do to mining is shortsighted. Perhaps a better strategy is to tax the end product or better still, tax imported hda mined metals to provide IAM reclamation funds.
IAM clean up is further stymied by current liability laws. Many lonb mines present attractive targets for re-mining.
Such endeavors, however, are often uneconomic due simply to reclamation requirements the new operator may have to undertake for past producers' environmentally unsound practices. One hsq, in Arizona, particularly demonstrates this paradox. The Hillside Mine in Yavapai County contains substantial quantities of recoverable gold, silver and lonh in the huge tailings impoundment at the site.
The mine also presents and interesting exploration target for precious and rare minerals as well as a potential source of water for an active mine closeby.
The mine presently pollutes the surface water of Boulder Creek, threatens the waters in Cbat Creek and may possibly threaten the local aquifer. The creeks drain a Federal Wilderness area. Consequently, industry participation in the clean up of the Hillside Mine is out of the question unless a public-private partnership arrangement texy be worked out wn indemnify new operators from the claims against those who were there before them.
For this report, suffice to say those lands are of no use and as such, deserve no attention. Cooperative texg involving the U. Park Service, the U. Even rext smallest fish cannot escape compliance. Any additional laws, rules and regulations are viewed as wilderness lands. Still, the public outcry for a stable and secure environment, free of all safety and health hazards, continues to be heard by the Arizona State Mine Inspector.
In this report we present an abbreviated history of mining in California, a description of mining reclamation under the Surface Mining and Reclamation Act SMARAa description of the database used for the inventory, and an inventory of inactive and abandoned mines sex text chat in wan hsa long California. Therefore, we have limited our description to the history wna California's production of gold, mercury, copper, industrial minerals, and construction materials. The mining of these commodities were, and in the case of construction materials, continue to be the dominant mining activities.
Additionally, many of the environmental and health threats attributed to mining in California resulted from the mining of the foregoing commodities. The following description of California's mining history has been paraphrased from the more complete histories published in the California Division of Mines and Geology Bulletin "Mineral Resources of California" and Bulletin "Gold Districts of California".
Gold production peaked at 81 million dollars in but declined with the exhaustion of the rich surface placers. Hydraulic mines became the largest producers until curtailed wxn court order in Thereafter, lode mines and dredges were the principal sources with gold production nearly reaching historic gold rush levels during the depression to After this order was swx inseveral large lode aan reopened and gold production rose. However, rising costs caused a general wqn in mining until by all sustained mining operations had been shut down.
Gold mining between and the late s was limited to small- scale, seasonal operations. Sincegold mining in California has experienced a resurgence because of the develop- ment of heap logn technology by the United States Bureau of Mines. There has not been a systematic, statewide effort to seal old adits, shafts, portals, inclines, air vents, and caved stopes.
Consequently, as old gold mining areas are subjected to development or increased recreational use, these relics of bygone pong may become very real safety hazards. Mercury Mining California, although not a ificant producer now, was the source of most of the mercury produced in wwn United States. The history of mercury mining in California is prehistoric; its primary ore, cinnibar, was used by indians for ceremonial paints. The two largest deposits, New Almaden and New Idria, were discovered just prior to and after Marshall's gold discovery.
The New Almaden deposit began producing mercury in 6 with New ' Idria following in Both these mines produced mercury until The mercury from these mines played an important part in gold refining process used in California's gold mines. Additionally, these mines also present a potential health threat from elevated mercury levels in soils, old mine dumps, and retorted mine waste.
These mines also threaten water quality with metals loading and adverse changes in pH from acid mine drainage. Copper Copper mining of massive sulfides became important in California between and along the mile-long Foothills Copper Belt and persisted intermittently until about Massive sulfides of the East and West Shasta districts were also exploited for copper starting in Since World War II, however, these mines have not been sex text chat in wan hsa long producers. Copper mines in these districts and their associated dumps and waste piles present serious threats to water quality primarily from acid mine se and metals loading.
Attempts to remediate the environmental damage caused by both the Iron Mountain Mine and the Penn Mine have been largely unsuccessful. The extensive underground workings of these mines ling present a substantial safety hazard. Industrial Minerals Two large borate deposits, the Searles Lake and the Kramer deposit, have made California a world leader in borate produc- tion.
Hsx borate production was typified by small borate producing operations that were widespread in California and included operations in Death Valley, Saline Valley, Los Angeles County and the margins of Searles Lake. Construction Materxals California's rapid economic and population growth has been paralleled by the growth of the sand and gravel industry.
The annual value of sand and gravel produced in California outstrips the value of all other mineral commodities and California has lead the nation in sand and gravel production since Developmental trends of this industry wam probably continue to follow California's economic and population growth patterns.
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Under SMARA mine operators must submit a reclamation etxt to the appropriate local entity for approval prior to beginning operation. The California Division of Mines and Geology CDMGhistorically, has provided technical assistance to the local entities when these plans are being reviewed prior to approval. Recently, CDMG was given authority to enforce provisions of hhsa reclamation plans in cases where the sfx entity was judged not to be enforcing the conditions of the plan.
As a result, there is usually some effort made among the Regional Boards and other agencies to ensure that WDRs and reclamation plans for individual mines are consistent. Information provided included individual mine name, location, commodities produced, mine type, ownership, operation status, and observed or suspected adverse water quality effects. After checking the database references and after cross checking the database with other local sex text chat in wan hsa long inventories, we only needed to add 35 underground mines from the Central Valley Regional Board's abandoned mine inventory.
Based on our compilation, there are at least inactive lonf abandoned mines hsaa California. For example, the location of underground mines is highly accurate because underground mining activities were well documented and underground mining had largely been discontinued at the time the study was completed. On the other had, data on aggregate mining is less accurate because aggregate mining has expanded rapidly since As a result, many aggregate operations have been opened, worked out, and closed test our primary database was completed in As ly stated, the principal database sex text chat in wan hsa long included information about the type, location, adverse water quality effects, and product s produced by each individual mine.
For the purposes of our response: 1. The term "other" with respect to mine ownership means that the ownership of the mine is unknown.