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Knowledge of HIV status, through HIV testing and counselling, is especially important during pregnancy, childbirth, and breastfeeding, since women with HIV can transmit the virus to their infants during these times. Midwives and nurses who provide services to women are already a trusted source of information and advice.

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Knowledge of HIV status, through HIV testing and counselling, is especially important during pregnancy, childbirth, and breastfeeding, since women with HIV can transmit the virus to their infants during these times. Midwives and nurses who provide services to women are already a trusted source of information and advice.

Pregnant sex chat

This session only provides an introduction with a focus on HIV and pregnancy. You are encouraged to discuss with your colleagues and programme managers how the services can best provide support for the different themes covered. If HIV is very prevalent in your community, you might consider discussing in your group or with your supervisor opportunities for additional training to help pregnant sex chat in supporting women.

Pregnant sex chat

What am I going to learn? By the end of this session you should be prregnant to: Pregnaant the benefits pregnant sex chat testing and counselling for HIV during pregnancy, the need for partner testing and counselling, and the importance of sharing HIV status with partner. Discuss ways for all pregnant women and their partners to prevent exposure to HIV. Help pregnant women understand mother-to-child HIV transmission and how to prevent it. Assist pregnant women who test HIV-positive to cope with their diagnosis and support them to make a plan to get the special care they and their infants will need.

Activity 1 45 minutes To reflect on your own attitudes, beliefs and values towards women who are HIV-positive.

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This exercise is best done in a group or with another person so that you can discuss the topic. If you are working alone, ssx and find a colleague who will carry out the exercise pregnant sex chat you. Is it important to know whether a woman has HIV? Why or why not? Whose fault is it if a woman gets HIV? Should women who have HIV be allowed to get pregnant?

Should they be allowed to have more than one pregnancy? If different, how should it be different? Think about how some of the answers you have given to oregnant pregnant sex chat may impact on the way you treat and counsel women that you see. Do these present a barrier to providing appropriate care and support?

Keep these points in mind as you read through the session. You may wish to review the questions and answers after you complete the session, to see if your answers have changed and to think about the barriers your beliefs and attitudes may pose. Our View In answering these questions you will have had to explore pregnant sex chat of your own pregnant sex chat, values and beliefs towards HIV.

Anyone can get HIV. Some people are more at risk because of the behaviours they have such as multiple sexual partners, or because they inject drugs. It should not matter how a woman or man got HIV in terms of how you treat them. All women that you see, whether they are HIV-positive or negative, should be treated with respect. As you will not know who has HIV and who does not, you should treat all women the same way and take the same clinical precautions.

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Women who are HIV-positive have the same pfegnant rights as all other women and they can make choices and decisions about whether to have children or not, and how many children and whether they want to breastfeed. If a woman is HIV-positive, she may need additional information, support and counselling including the possible effects cat childbirth on her health status, but the decisions are still hers to make. You may agree or you may not agree with pregnant sex chat of the views expressed here.

Pregnant sex chat

Whatever your views, you need to think about how they might impact the women that you treat and pregnamt. Are you likely to treat them differently? How could you try to overcome some of the pregnant sex chat attitudes that you have? All women in high prevalence countries, especially pregnant women, should be tested and counselled for HIV.

How to test if you're pregnant

All ANC clients are offered the test, and counselled on the benefits and risks of knowing HIV status during pregnancy. But testing is still voluntary and women may refuse if pregnanr wish.

Women are more likely pregnant sex chat accept HIV testing if their health char provider counsels in favour of the procedure and recommends it. If a woman refuses testing and counselling, spend chaat bit of extra time with her to find out why she refused use your open questioning and active listening skillsand see if you can help her with any problems related to accepting the HIV test.

But remember to present the information in a neutral, non-biased way without pressure or judgement. Some women may be afraid to get an HIV test, do not want to know their HIV status, or do not want to discuss with their partner. Real and perceived stigma and discrimination against those who are known to be infected with HIV is a big problem in many communities and may be a barrier to testing.

Counselling women about the benefits and risks of knowing their HIV status, not only for themselves but for their infant and partner, can help to overcome the fear of stigma, discrimination and other barriers. Allowing women to express their concerns is also important. Fear of bad outcomes is more common than actual bad outcomes for most women, and many women who disclose their positive HIV status report positive outcomes, support and understanding.

When counselling, be sure to assist women to evaluate the real chances of pregnant sex chat outcomes and help make a plan to minimize them.

Pregnant sex chat

If a woman does not accept HIV testing and counselling at her first visit, ask again at every future visit if she is ready to be tested. Briefly review with her the benefits of knowing her and her partner's HIV status, and the care that is available for HIV-positive women and their babies, at each clinic visit to help her pregnang.

Support should also be provided to help her decide if she will discuss her with her partner, so that he can be tested and actively participate in risk assessment and risk reduction for the two of them. The main ways to prevent HIV infection and Pregnant sex chat Correct and consistent use of condoms during every sexual act Practising safer sex choosing sexual activities that do not allow semen, fluid from the vagina, or blood to enter the mouth, anus or vagina of the partner, or to touch the skin of the partner where there is an open cut or sore.

Reducing the of partners Sexual fidelity Abstinence. Sometimes pregnant women may need help in adopting these prevention behaviours, or in getting their partner to agree. A first step in negotiating safer sexual practices between partners is for them to do a risk assessment, to identify any risky behaviour they might currently be involved in. This requires a frank and pregnant sex chat discussion between partners about their own sexual practices as a couple, and pregnang other sexual activity that might pregnan taking place outside of their relationship.

All women should consider dual methods of protection, to protect against HIV and to avoid unwanted pregnancy. See Session 12 on family planning for more information on dual protection.

Dual protection Many couples are successful in adopting safer sexual practices. If you have developed the appropriate skills and experience, it is often helpful to offer to counsel the couple together so they can then talk pregnant sex chat you as a couple about these issues, to help them better understand risks, and find solutions that are agreeable to both.

REMINDER Correct and consistent use of condoms with another family planning method for every sexual encounter is the best way to ensure dual protection against HIV and avoid unwanted pregnancy or to space desired pregnancy. Another key to HIV prevention is partner testing and counselling.

How to talk to your kids about sex: an age-by-age guide

Every pregnant woman should ask her partner to get pdegnant HIV test. It is not unusual for a pregnant woman to test HIV-positive and for her partner to test HIV-negative, or the other way around. Couples with discordant HIV test can present a counselling challenge, as partners often have difficulty understanding how the can be different. You may want to refer discordant couples to more specialized counselling services where available.

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Retesting Repeat testing late in the pregnancy should also be recommended to HIV-negative women pregnant sex chat HIV is very prevalent pregnant sex chat your community. Health workers need to assess if condoms are easily available in the community or if there are barriers which limit their availability Activity 2 1 hour To develop or improve your counselling skills so you can help women to address common barriers to HIV prevention behaviours, and to negotiate se sex with their partners.

Discuss with colleagues, women and men in the community and make a list of the different reasons why men and women do not put HIV prevention behaviours into practice.

Pregnant sex chat

Also talk about barriers to partner HIV testing and counselling. Consider how the counselling context e. Discuss cchat solutions - make this into a list of things that women can pregnant sex chat for themselves, things that health workers can implement, and things that can be addressed by the wider community. Think of ways you can help to implement the solutions you have proposed. With regards to things women can do for themselves, how can you support them to do these things? What information will they need?

How can you improve preynant couple counselling skills to work with partners to involve them in the solutions? What work needs to be done in the broader community? Who else can support you in this effort?

Contraception and pregnancy

Finally what can health workers do? Discuss the solutions among staff and develop a plan together to improve the support you can provide. Helping a woman overcome her own or her partner's resistance to partner testing and counselling, condom-use and other safer sexual practices for example, partner reduction or abstinence, will require you to have a frank, open discussion about sexual issues. You may need to discuss sexual attitudes and practices that you have not addressed in your counselling before.

You may find that women would like an opportunity to role-play condom negotiation and introduction of dual methods with you before they discuss the issues with their partners. Before they do so, make sure to provide her with condoms. See session 16 below on women and violence will pregnant sex chat be of use to you if you suspect pregnant sex chat may be a problem of violence.

Discussing HIV test with women infected with HIV Helping a woman cope with positive HIV test is among the most difficult counselling challenges faced by health workers today. Pregnant women who find out that they have HIV have to cope not only with their own diagnosis, but that their baby has been exposed to HIV, as well as the normal concerns all women have during pregnancy. If it is not realistic to provide counselling to women infected with HIV during the regular antenatal care session, it may be possible to ask the woman to return at a time when it would be possible for you to have more time for a more in-depth discussion, after she has had time to think over the basic information you provided her during post-counselling at ANC.

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Some women who test HIV-positive may want to bring their partner or a family member back to the pregnant sex chat to participate in couple or family counselling. If you cannot provide counselling of this type, refer them to other available HIV counselling services. There are several key post-test counselling topics: coping with the diagnosis learning the actions to take to keep a woman and her baby healthier and prevent mother-to-child transmission, including antiretroviral drugs and infant feeding deciding whether to share her test with others, especially her partner, so he can also get tested.

Helping pregnant sex chat women cope with their diagnosis is the first counselling objective and requires special skills. Factors that influence a woman's acceptance of a positive HIV test include: the content and quality of the counselling and support she receives awareness of the options that are available to her for treatment, care and support her perception of what the reaction of family and friends will be her willingness to share her HIV status with others disclosure.

It is important to discuss the pros and cons of disclosing her status to others from the woman's own perspective and to prefnant any problems cyat a woman thinks she might have if she shares her HIV status with others. Help her decide who she might like to tell about her diagnosis and help her make a plan to share her if she wants to.

Invite family and partner to the clinic or go to their home if appropriate, to participate in the sharing of HIV test. Provide women who have a positive test result with multiple opportunities for disclosure. Even women who choose not to disclose when are first given to them can later change their minds. Remember to assure women that all discussions about HIV and related issues are confidential. Only you and essential members pregnant sex chat the health care team will know about her status, and that you will maintain confidentiality among yourselves.

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